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Question Answer
What does ST segment depression indicate?
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Myocardial ischemia; *Reversible within 20 minutes.
How is an AICD different from a pacemaker?
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It can defibrillate as well as pace.
Role of sodium ions in cardiac conduction...
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Conducts depolarization (+) charges thru the myocardium. Essentially, generates a positive charge causing an upward deflection.
Role of calcium ions in cardiac conduction...
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Slow conduction thru the AV node; contraction of the myocardium.
Action Potentials/Refractory? Phase 0 = _______, Phase 1 = _______, Phase 2 = _______, Phase 3 = _______, Phase 4 = _______
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Phase 0 = depolarized, Phase 1 = repolarized: absolute refractory, Phase 2 = repolarized: absolute refractory, Phase 3 = repolarized: relative refractory, Phase 4 = Polarized, ready.
What does Phase 4 of the action potential represent?
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Polarization of the ventricles.
How is atrial fibrillation typically treated?
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Blood thinners (for cardioversion), if stable, Cardizem/calcium channel blocker, and possibly pacemaker.
Treats? Blood thinners like Heparin, Calcium channel blockers like Cardizem.
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How is an unstable sinus bradycardia or 3rd degree AV block typically treated?
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PAED - Pacing, Atropine, Epinephrine, Dopamine
How is a stable sinus bradycardia, AV block, or 2 degree AV block typically treated?
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Monitor, possibly atropine.
What does an ST elevation indicate?
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Injury (MI)
What is an escape beat or escape rhythm?
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When a lower heart structure fires (essentially anything other than the SA node firing).
Which part(s) of the heart are affected by the parasympathetic nervous system?
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The atria.
Which wave form on the EKG corresponds to the atrial kick?
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PR interval
Which wave form on the EKG corresponds to atrial repolarization?
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Which wave form on the EKG represents the absolute refractory period?
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Inherent automatically rates: SA node = _______, AV junction = _______, Bundles/Purkinje = _______.
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SA node = 60-100; AV junction = 40-60; Bundles/Purkinje = less than 40.
What is the path of cardiac conduction?
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SA node to AV node to Bundle to Purkinje.
What is the unique contraindication for the fibrinolytic streptokinase?
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Recent strep infection and previously dosed with streptokinase.
_______ is a highly antigenic thrombolytic and often causes fever. It can only be used once every 6 months.
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A decision whether a patient is going to receive fibrinolytic therapy should be made within _______ of admission.
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30 minutes
How long after a person reports chest pain does a hospital have to start an EKG?
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10 minutes
For a patient with a STEMI, how long do you have? EKG_______, TPA decision_______, and Balloon/PCI_______
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EKG - 10 min., TPA - 30 min., and Balloon - 90 min.
What do phases 1,2 and 3 of the action potentials represent?
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How is Torsades de Point treated?
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What is PEA and how is it treated?
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Pulseless electrical activity. Look for the cause which can be: cardiac tamponade, hypothermia, hypoxia, etc. Treat cause.
Which method of heart rate measurement via EKG strip is the only way to measure irregular rhythms?
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Counting R intervals and multiplying by 10.
Which dysrhythmias can trigger R on T phenomenon (sustained ventricular tachycardia)?
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Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC)
What happens when P waves in junction rhythms?
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They are inverted due to retrograde conduction to the atria and can occur before, during or after a QRS depending on when the impulse arrived.
What is the electrical flow of the heart in junctional rhythms?
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Ventricular conduction is normal, but the atria are depolarized via retrograde conduction.

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