Study Books   

Nursing In a Flash 
   Med Surg Nursing Review Questions


iTunes App Store
Android Market
Blackberry App World
Amazon Market

Question Answer
What is the definition of hypertension?
Show Answer
Persistent systolic pressure above 140, diastolic above 90, OR current use of antihypertensive meds
What disease states have been linked to hypertension? (5)
Show Answer
Cardiovascular disease, MI, heart failure, stroke and renal disease
What is pre-hypertension?
Show Answer
A persistent SBP of 120-139 or DBP of 80-89
_______ is the force exerted by blood against the walls of the blood vessel.
Show Answer
Blood pressure
_______ is the force opposing movement of blood within the blood vessels.
Show Answer
Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)
What is the major determinant of systemic vascular resistance?
Show Answer
The radius of small arteries and arterioles
What systems are involved in the short term regulation of blood pressure?
Show Answer
SNS and vascular epithelium
At what age does hypertension become more common in women than men?
Show Answer
Men with hypertension are more likely to suffer strokes or MI?
Show Answer
Women with hypertension are more likely to suffer strokes or MI?
Show Answer
Why do African Americans not respond as well to angiotensin inhibitors used to treat hypertension?
Show Answer
They produce less renin
Who has a higher incidence of hypertension, African American women or men?
Show Answer
Women (more than 75% over 75 have it)
What impact does the SNS have when a decrease in arterial pressure is detected?
Show Answer
Increased HR, increased contractility, widespread vasoconstriction in peripheral arterioles, and stimulates the kidneys to release renin. All work to raise arterial pressure by increasing CO and SV.
The PNS decreases the heart rate via the _______ nerve.
Show Answer
Where are the receptors located that are activated by norepinephrine?
Show Answer
The SA node, myocardium, and vascular smooth muscle
______ receptors are located in the peripheral vasculature and cause constriction when stimulated by norepinephrine.
Show Answer
Alpha adrenergic receptors
How do beta 1 adrenergic receptors in the heart respond to norepinephrine?
Show Answer
Increased heart rate (chronotropic), increased force of contraction (inotropic) and increased conduction speed
Beta 2 Adrenergic receptors are activated primarily by epinephrine released by the _______ and respond with vasodilation.
Show Answer
Adrenal medulla
Which part of the brain is the control center for BP regulation?
Show Answer
The vasomotor center in the medulla
Which SNS receptors, when stimulated, cause vasoconstriction?
Show Answer
Alpha 1, Alpha 2, and Beta 1
_______ sense the rise and fall of blood pressure and suppresses or initiates SNS activity in response.
Show Answer
_______ is a potent vasoconstrictor produced by the vascular endothelium.
Show Answer
Endothelin (three subclasses, ET-1-ET-3)
_____ is the subclass of endothelin that is the most potent vasoconstrictor and also causes adhesion and aggregation of neutrophils and stimulates smooth muscle growth.
Show Answer
______ is produced by the vascular endothelium and helps maintain low arterial tone at rest, inhibits growth of the smooth muscle layer and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Show Answer
Nitric oxide (an endothelium-derived relaxing factor/EDRF)
What events trigger the secretion of renin from the kidneys? (3)
Show Answer
SNS stimulation, decreased bloodflow to the kidneys or low serum sodium
How does Angiotensin II work locally on the heart?
Show Answer
It vasoconstricts the heart and causes tissue growth that results in remodeling of the vessel walls (this is bad)
How do the kidneys decrease blood pressure?
Show Answer
The renal medulla secretes prostaglandins (PGE1 & PGE2) causing vasodilation
How does the heart decrease blood pressure?
Show Answer
The cardiac cells secrete ANP and BNP which antagonizes ADH and Aldosterone causing the kidneys to eliminate sodium and water
What areas of the body vasoconstrict in response to the release of epinephrine? Why?
Show Answer
The kidneys and skin, they only have alpha 1 adrenergic receptors
Which subtype of hypertension? Average SBP of 140 or more/ DBP less than 90 Common in older adults, caused by loss of elasticity in the large arteries from atherosclerosis
Show Answer
Isolated hypertension

Skip Navigation Links
Portions of this page are reproduced from work created and shared by Google and used according to terms described in the Creative Commons 3.0 Attribution License.